The contents of this publication reflect the opinions of individual authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the EBRD.
© European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
One Exchange Square
London EC2A 2JN
All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material contained on this microsite for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorised without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without the written permission of the copyright holders.
Applications for such permission should be addressed to: Head, Publications, Design and Donor Visibility, Communications Department, EBRD, One Exchange Square, London EC2A 2JN, United Kingdom, or by email to: email@example.com.
Note: The complex coding required for some of our online charts may limit their ability to export successfully. For all maps in this website, the designations employed and the presentation of material in the maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the EBRD concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.
Hyperlinks to non-EBRD websites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-EBRD sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.
Terms and conditions
Full terms and conditions can be found on www.ebrd.com.
This Life in Transition report was prepared by the Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) of the EBRD, under the general direction of Sergei Guriev and Ralph de Haas. The editor was Ralph de Haas. Cevat Giray Aksoy and Francesca Dalla Pozza provided project management support for the entire report. Ana Kresic, Valentin Moreau and Kevin Tran provided research assistance.
The writing teams for the chapters, boxes and annex comprised:
Cevat Giray Aksoy
Cevat Giray Aksoy
Box 1 was prepared by Ana Kresic
Cevat Giray Aksoy
Francesca Dalla Pozza
Francesca Dalla Pozza
The country assessments were prepared by Cevat Giray Aksoy and Francesca Dalla Pozza and edited by Ralph de Haas.
The authors are grateful to the following for comments and suggestions on parts of this report: Elena Ruiz Abril, Bruno Balvanera, Michaela Bergman, Christoph Denk, Alper Dincer, Jolanta Gabriel, Kristine Grun, Dimitri Gvindadze, Janet Heckman, Graeme Hutchison, Matti Hyyrynen, Anca Ioana Ionescu, Richard Jones, Vedrana Jelusic Kasic, Natasha Khanjenkova, Libor Krkoska, Matthieu Le Blan, Oleg Levitin, Francis Malige, Larisa Manastirli, Neil McKain, Jakov Milatovic, Holger Muent, Elena Petrovska, Barbara Rambousek, Peter Sanfey, Dimitris Sourvanos, Arvid Tuerkner, Grzegorz Zielinski and Emir Zildzovic.
Editorial, design and production guidance was provided by Dermot Doorly, Dan Kelly, Philippa Moore and Jane Ross in the EBRD Communications Department. The report was designed and print-managed by
Blackwood Creative Ltd; www.weareblackwood.com.
The Life in Transition Survey III
The third round of the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS III) was designed by the EBRD’s Office of the Chief Economist, Transparency International and the World Bank’s Poverty and Equity Global Practice. The EBRD and the World Bank worked in close collaboration with Professor Natalie Shlomo on the sampling and weighting of the survey. Within the EBRD, Francesca Dalla Pozza and Elena Nikolova were responsible for the implementation of the project.
The survey fieldwork was designed and implemented by a team at the research firm Kantar Public Brussels (formerly known as TNS opinion), which was selected by a competitive tender. The team was led by Marco Pelucchi, Hayk Gyuzalyan and Kristina Slavova. Many others have contributed significantly to the project, including Kantar Public Brussels staff members, teams at hub centres in Sofia and Tbilisi, and fieldwork agencies in all 34 countries. The survey relied on the work of hundreds of interviewers and the enthusiastic participation of the survey respondents in each fieldwork country.
LiTS III was funded by the EBRD Shareholder Special Fund, Transparency International and the World Bank’s Umbrella Facility for Gender Equality. This funding is gratefully acknowledged.
- The “transition region” in this report refers to the EBRD’s countries of operations that are covered in the third round of the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS): Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, FYR Macedonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, the Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. It also includes Cyprus and Greece, which became recipient member countries of the EBRD in May 2014 and March 2015, respectively. The Bank’s involvement in both countries is expected to be temporary, with no new investment after the end of 2020. Please note the data for Cyprus does not include the northern part of the island.
- The survey was also implemented in the Czech Republic. Please also note that the EBRD ceased making new investments in the Czech Republic in 2007 but still manage a portfolio in the country.
- Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkmenistan are not included in the LiTS nor, consequently, in the thematic chapters of this report. Country assessments for these countries were prepared using the Gallup World Poll.
- Western Europe refers to the comparator countries – Germany and Italy – which allow us to benchmark the transition region against some advanced market economies, thereby giving a clearer perspective on the remaining challenges facing transition countries.
- All charts based on LiTS data use survey-weighted observations. Regional averages in the chapters are based on simple averages of the country scores. Regional averages in the country assessments are based on population-weighted averages of the country scores. Chart notes provide further information about the variables and data sets used in the analysis.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- FYR Macedonia
- Kyrgyz Republic
- Slovak Republic
Tel: +44 20 7338 6000
Tel: +44 20 7338 7168
See the Enquiries page
Office of the Chief Economist
Tel: +44 20 7338 6037
Chief Economist: Sergei Guriev
Last updated on 13 December 2016